Is there a laptop database where I can search for laptops (including the latest models) by the following characteristics:
- noise level
- CPU model
- display size
- screen finish (matte/glossy)
- battery life
I haven't seen anything that is exactly like what you're asking for. The category and advanced comparison features on a site like Newegg may be your best bet. In order to get less common metrics like decibels, you'll probably have to synthesize your own based upon multiple sources.
No manufacturer is going to set up a site like this, since they try and differentiate their products with marketing puffery as much as possible in order to avoid straight technical specification comparisons. Most non-profit consumer sites will be behind the market by weeks or months in terms of what products they have reviewed and compared. Only the retailers will tend to have up-to-date specs and comparisons on the models they offer because they have a financial incentive to set such systems up.