Your friends can change the visibility of your posts; particularly they can choose not to see your "Comments and likes". Read more about how they can control it.
I found a shortcut. In their news feed, in the upper right corner of the post where you liked something, they can click on the down-arrow. There's an option
Unsubscribe from comments and likes by ThisPerson.
Alternatively, you can delete the "likes" individually from your timeline. On my Timeline, I see a box "Activity / Recent" which shows the latest likes I have made. I can go in there and click the 'x' to "Remove" the item from the Activity. I think that will stop your friends from seeing it, too.