Your Google account dashboard does not show you your password. The only option is to reset your password by entering both your current password and a new one.
One way to answer your question, since you have your phone is to try to log in on your phone's browser. At the login page select Can't access your account?
Follow the instructions to regain access to the password, although this will require you to reset your password. Your recovery options are dependent on whether you have selected recovery options for your account.
If you select "Recovery by phone," Google will either text or call you with a recovery code that you will enter on the following page in order to reset your password. You can always reset your password to be the same as what you thought your password was in the first place :)