That would be incredibly helpful, as switching between a board and all cards that are assigned to me is often necessary.
Yes, from the board view you can hit Q
This should filter to show only cards that are assigned to you. They will still be arranged in whatever particular lists they are organized in, but every other card that is not assigned to you will disappear. To bring back the default view just hit Q again.
You can also find an entire list of keyboard shortcuts if you hit Space + ?