Using the Android app (and, presumably, the iPhone app) this is academic. Simply filter your posts by "Nearby".
On the web app it's not as straightforward.
If you do a search, there's a filter menu. (Everything, People and Pages, Communities, etc.) One of the options is "From this Location:" which allows you to enter a place.
But that requires you to search first; you can't really browse that way. (Although it's pretty smart in how it uses the location signals on various posts. They're not limited to those with an explicit location attached.)
You might do better to simply search for the name of the place where you are. I did some tests and not only did it pick up nearby check-ins, but also posts with a location attached (which, I guess, are the same thing) and posts where the place was in the text. And, in true Google fashion, was really smart about how places relate to each other and variations of spellings.