How can I set my Facebook settings so that people I am not friends with can like my pictures? Simply putting them on “public” did not solve the problem.
To set Facebook privacy, click the privacy settings icon in the top bar, then "Who can see my stuff", and select "Friends" from the dropdown menu:
Note that this will only apply to your posts from now on.
To change privacy settings for an existing post (or image), go to your profile page, locate the image, click "Edit" and select a new privacy setting from the dropdown menu: