For instance, create a list of friends that speak a certain language. Or friends that have been to a specific place or like a page, live in a particular city.
It's not possible using Facebooks own web user interface. You could probably do it via a custom developed FB API application, or Greasemonkey script.
UPDATE 7th May 2015
Since I wrote this comment, Facebook have released "Graph Search", this allows you to query Facebook's massive database using English queries.
Try typing what you are looking for into Facebook's search box. Up until quite recently (and possibly still the same) Graph Search was only available if you have set your Facebook interface langauge to "US-English", so you may need to do that first before attempting any Graph Search queries.
For some examples of the types of searches you can run using Graph Search, have a look here: http://actualfacebookgraphsearches.tumblr.com/