It's a strong possible.
For that particular promoted tweet, it will send a signal back that it should not come up again:
Dismiss the Tweet: If you see a Promoted Tweet that you no longer want to see, you can dismiss it to remove it right away. This action provides Twitter with feedback about the advertiser and prevents that particular Promoted Tweet from appearing in your timeline again.
Dismissing it may very well send back data to the advertiser that you're not in their targeted demographic when they collect the analytics on how campaigns are doing based on your "delete this tweet" activity.
Our platform uses a variety of signals to determine which Promoted Tweets are relevant to users, including what a user chooses to follow, how they interact with a Tweet, what they retweet, and more.
-- How does Twitter determine which Promoted Tweets to display in a user’s timeline?
But if you don't want to see any ads, get a client or an app/browser extension that removes it for you.
You won't be able to opt out of the advertising entirely from the native clients or webapp though.