You can access all comments from your Activity Log. First open your timeline view, and there's a link to access the Activity log.
From the Activity log, select "Comments", and you'll get a chronological list of all your comments.
In addition, you can also request a download of your Facebook data, if you want to do some automated analysis or processing on it. You can do this from Account settings. It takes a while for the download to be ready. "Once your download is ready, [Facebook will] send an email to the email address listed on your Facebook account along with a link to your download."
However, it's quite possible neither of these methods provide the amount of likes on each of your comments. The description on types of provided data does mention that
Likes on Your Posts from others: Likes on your own posts, photos or other content
would be included in the Activity log, but I can't seem to find that anywhere. For example, a comment that has been liked:
does not show those likes when displayed in the Activity log:
and neither can those like-events be found as individual items on the log. Whether that information is included in the downloaded data dump, I do not know, but would be interested in finding out.