Is there a web application that exists that can scan my timeline for a given period (for example last weekend while I was away) and allow me to intelligently catch-up by showing only the tweets that are important.
You can use Feedera. It sends you digests of your feed to your email everyday. Sorting in terms of Top Photos,Top Stories and Top Videos in your feed.
This is great for me if there are days when I am working constantly and I do not have time to constantly check twitter. If you cannot wait you can try live digest feed