I have some text in a Google Document, and I want to have a small table beside this text.
The problem is that the table takes the whole row, so I can't have any text left of the table. Is it even possible?
Unfortunately you cannot have text floating around tables in Google docs.
However, you can achieve something similar by using tables within tables:
This will not let text really float around your table (if you delete text above your tables, the free form text won't be absorbed in previous paragraphs), but this will achieve the visual effect you want.