Can Facebook admins tell you an account's login history going further back in time than the most recent login?
According to the Facebook Subpoena / Search Warrant Guidelines on cryptome, IP log data is generally retained for 90 days. It is available for subpoenas and search warrants, for a cost ($500 minimum).
As for data that is available without a subpoena or search warrant, it seems that they will at least show you unusual login activity, see for example this question and this Facebook blog post, as well as this example of unusual account acitivity.
You can always see all of the sessions currently logged in to your account in Account Settings under Account Security. If you enable Login Notifications then you can also see each of the different devices that have been used to log in to your account. (See this question.)
The information for all login activity for a Facebook account is saved. To access it simply so go your settings and there should be a link to "Download a copy of your Facebook data."
How can I download my information from Facebook? is a more detailed description of how to download your information.
Accessing Your Facebook Data shows what is included in the information downloaded.