When I send in email from Outlook.com it sends my real name with it. So whenever I send an email, it shows up as "[first name] [last name] [subject]", however there are cases where I only want it to show up as "[email address] [subject]". I know Gmail has this feature. Is there any way to do this in Outlook.com?
You can't. This is because Outlook.com is using Exchange Server as a backend. It will always set your Outlook.com account's name in From. So, you either need to edit your account's name and replace First/Last name with your email address only. Or add email alias with another email address.