In fact FV is what you want here. In your example:
=-FV((1.05^(1/12)-1), 120, 1000, 0)
will yield the final value of a 5% APY investment of a $1000 monthly after 10 years.
The 1st argument to FV is the monthly compounding rate calculated down from the 5% APR.
Um, what you want probably isn't a function, because it's too simple to be a specialized function. It doesn't matter if it's compounded weekly, monthly or quarterly, if you want an APY of an amount X at a rate R after an integer number of years N, the formula for that would be
For a fractional number of years, just calculate the same for the applicable number of periods at the fractional period rate.
Here is the list of all Google Spreadsheets functions, if you narrow down by Financial you will see that they mostly deal with more complicated scenarios involving vectors of payments, dates, variable rates etc.: