I have a spreadsheet with the following formula: =R3*$S$3+T2. What does $S$3 mean?

1 Answer 1


The $s are 'anchors'. Copy the formula down one row (for example) and it becomes:


Copy that across one column (usually to the right) and it becomes:


So $S$3 stays as the multiplier for the first reference. Were the content of S3 say 53 then the above could be written: =R4*53+T3 and =S4*53+U3 respectively for the same results.

$s indicate fixed rather than the more usual relative references, with the choice being to anchor the row C$n, or the column $aR, or both (as above).

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