Google used to offer Google Docs Editors desktop apps through the Chrome Apps but they were retired. At this time it's possible to do some tasks by enabling offline access (available only on Chrome) like editing files but it's not possible to some features like Google Apps Script as it run on Google's servers. For further details see Work on Google Docs, Sheets, & Slides offline.
No, Google does not offer a desktop version of either Docs or Sheets that would run outside of a browser.
I suppose there might be some third-party applications that could do that, but seeking them here amounts to an app recommendation request, which are off-topic. For that, try Software Recommendations.
This isn't an official Google application, but this is might be what you're looking for.
G Desktop Suite is a desktop wrapper for Google Drive built with ElectronJS.
You can use Clasp: clasp allows you to develop your Apps Script projects locally. That means you can check-in your code into source control, collaborate with other developers, and use your favorite tools to develop Apps.
This is a hackish workaround, but you could use Fluid App to generate a native webview that points to drive.google.com.
Here's how it looks on my dock: