I go to http://trends.google.com/trends/?geo=US and scroll down to "Recently trending" which shows recent trends, meaning today's trends (e.g., apple computer with 500k searches, etc). If I scroll down more, I get another section that says "year in search 2017" and then the years previous to it. But I can't find how to find trends for last week or last month, or even starting 2018.
Have a look at Google Trends Explore, it looks like it provides the kind of insights you are looking for.
You can see below website to know about Most Searches words on Google in 2018.
They also have a Tutorial in the same Article about how you can Use Google Trends to look up trending searches in your country.