I would like to disable automatic calculation on a single Google sheet and then have a trigger, either by button or through some implementation of scripts, inserting a column, etc that will allow me to easily recalculate the entire sheet at will, but not automatically.
Unfortunately, this is not supported in Google Sheets at the moment. The best you can do is to create a switch condition logic with
=IF(X1=TRUE, your-formula-you-want-to-freeze(), )
If you work with volatile formulas you are able to delay them up to 1 hour in the spreadsheet settings: