I am using Google Docs and have a document file. I would like to add columns within this, and was wondering if that is possible. I can't find how to do it internally.
No. The closest thing you can do is use a table.
Today, Google announced several enhancements to Google Drive and Google Docs, including the columns handling feature:
You can now easily split your document into multiple columns in Docs. Just choose “Columns” in the “Format” drop-down menu when you need more formatting options to get your point across.