Is there a way I can track how many times a Google+ post has been viewed, similar to the views on a SE question?
No. While I'm sure Google is tracking the information, it's not shown anywhere on the site.
Google+ has a tool called Google+ Ripples that will show you the public shares of any public post or URL on Google+. You can learn more about it here: https://support.google.com/plus/answer/1713320?hl=en
I am not sure about tracking the posts views of Google plus, but here is a site which tracks popular posts of Google+:
The only way to track views of a Google+ Post that I'm aware of at this time is by using an image as a workaround. If you include an image in the post, you'll be able to view statistics on that image which include Views.