I don't want my friends to see my friend's posts, as some of them post to 'Friends of friends' and to 'Public', every single time, which is quite annoying and rude.
So there are people who you are currently Facebook-friends with who do something that you don't like because it impacts on other people.
In real-life, you would most probably stop being friends with them, because you don't like the consequences of their actions. So one effective option would be to simply un-friend them.
And I doubt that Facebook provides other options - because why should you have the right to determine what other people can say to your friends? You do have the right to not invite them both to the same party - but you cannot stop them meeting at the mall, or having other friends in common.
Just avoid liking or commenting on those posts that are posted to Friends of Friends or Public. If you don't like or comment on them, your other friends will not see those posts unless they see them for other reasons (e.g. they are friends with the poster or another commenter, or they explicitly visit the person's timeline).
There are settings in Facebook that allow you to restrict individual Friends from posting to your wall or liking or commenting on your posts.
They will still see your posts, but cannot get involved in them. That way, they will still be "Friends" on FB, but restricted from glomming onto your stuff.