I want to share some photos with friends of one friend or just a few friends. One example why I'm asking this: there are some kind of party photos, I want to share them with certain friends and only their friends! I want them to appear for friends of friends in the pub I was last night, but I don't want them to appear for other people who maybe are my teachers, or people whose one friend is the boss of a the local business I'm working for because in this case, my teacher is a friend of my too and a friend of my friend is actually my boss in the "Facebook language".
Actually, you can. You need to tag that friend on every picture (just tag the lower left or right corner of the photos). Then, when sharing the album, share it only to friends and there is a check box to share to friends of friends who are tagged.
Facebook does not allow you to limit the visibility of a photo (or any other item) in the way that you are asking.
If a photo's privacy is not set to
Public, Facebook allows you to prevent an explicit set of your friends from seeing it. However, you cannot prevent specific people who are not your friends from seeing it. Neither can you prevent friends who are not explicitly specified -- for example, "friends who are also friends of a specific person X" -- from seeing it.
And if the photo's privacy is set to
Public, then you cannot prevent anyone from seeing it.