As of 2017, Google Drive does not have this feature built in. Limited functionality can be achieved using advanced search, however, that can be complicated, and still does not fully answer your question.
Instead, you can use WhoHasAccess.com. The interface is user-based, which means that instead of listing directly the files that are shared, it will list the people that the files are shared with. If you absolutely need a file by file based interface, this might not be the solution for you, but there's a lot of potential if you can work around that.
To start, go to WhoHasAccess.com, and click Scan my Google Drive now.
Next, you'll need to give WhoHasAccess.com permission to view and manage your Google Drive files. Don't worry - after the scan is completed, they'll delete the collected data within 24 hours.
Next, you'll have to wait a few minutes, depending on how much stuff you keep in your drive. When the scan is finished, you'll see a page like the one below, and be able to manage who has access to what.
If That's Not Good Enough
A slightly more complicated method is available if you're more tech savvy, and/or need the information presented differently. @Tom Woodward left a comment above that you can run his Google Script, which will output a csv (Comma Separated Value) file, which is open-able in Excel.