After days of tinkering, I found out the details of the issue and solutions to it.
Issue: You open a shared link from google drive that was sent to you in a facebook messenger chat group or the like.
Opening the shared link on facebook will allow you to view the shared contents of the owner, but once you try to download it, you are redirected to a broken link stating Error: "access denied or you don't have authorization".
It turns out the issue is not on the owner of the drive but with how facebook treats external links. Since you opened the link on Facebook, it's the facebook browser that is granted access to the shared link, however, once you press download on any file, the Facebook browser will prompt you to a pop-up window letting you choose between browsers available in your mobile devices. And since the facebook browser redirected you to another browser(which did not have prior access to the shared link) your access will be denied and you will have no authorization.
In short, the main issue is that Facebook redirects downloads from within links viewed by the facebook browser to another browser.
Solution: Simply copy the shared link address, and manually paste it to your external browser on your phone or pc. This way, your browser(not the fb browser) is given permissions to the shared link, and on any subsequent download links you access from there onwards.