If you're part of GSuite:
You can set the viewing permissions to
Anyone at Your GSuite Organisation Name can view / comment / edit
This will make sure that all users have to be signed in to their work account for them to view the file. However, this will only allow users part of your organisation to view them and as you say you want "anybody" to be able to see it this technique wont work.
While doing some research on the internet, I found this article: https://www.bettercloud.com/monitor/google-drive-sharing-complete-guide/
And under the Sharing Options for GSuite admins, I found this:
Require Google sign-in for external users to view file
Forces external users to create a free Google account in order to view or edit the shared document. This option is more secure because even though the external party will be using a consumer account, they are still required to sign in with a username and password.
Allow external users to preview file without Google sign-in
This option is less secure, but more convenient for the external user. Users without Google accounts will be able to preview the document, but not make edits. Non-Google users would also be able to forward the invite along, or download the file. Therefore, this setting represents a much higher risk of data exposure than requiring a Google sign-in. Before enabling this setting, you should weigh the convenience factor against the potential security risks.
But if you're not using GSuite, this will not work either.
@Michelfrancis Bustillos, you said that this was possible in Google Forms but that is not for editing the form, it's only for filling out the form.
If you're not part of GSuite, I don't think there is any way to achieve what you want. However, if that is not the case, according to the web site I mentioned earlier, it should be possible (but I don't know because I'm not a GSuite admin).