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How can I search "c-- language" in google? How does google deal with these kind of special characters?

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For this particular language you can generally find results by searching for "c minus minus" or "c minus minus programming language".

Their site is at http://www.cminusminus.org/.

Using the word "minus" isn't a general solution, but for C-- in particular many sites have been search optimized for "c minus minus" for this reason, e.g. Stackoverflow's c-minus-minus tag.