No, you can't do that. There is nothing in Gmail's settings to restrict from where your account can be accessed.
Really, you shouldn't have to. Google already does some checking to see if your account is being accessed from wildly divergent locations.
According to the Google Online Security Blog:
You may remember that a while back we launched remote sign out and information about recent account activity to help you understand and manage your account usage. This information is still at the bottom of your inbox. Now, if it looks like something unusual is going on with your account, we’ll also alert you by posting a warning message saying, "Warning: We believe your account was last accessed from…" along with the geographic region that we can best associate with the access.
If you're suspicious that your account might have been accessed from a place where you haven't been, be sure to check the latest activity on your account by clicking the "Details" link at the bottom of your Gmail page.
There's also this general guide to keeping your Gmail/Google account safe: How do I protect my Google/Gmail account?