I read on Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides size limits that spreadsheets have a maximum of columns per sheet.
Shall I conclude that the maximum of fields a Google Form can contain is 255 (since one column is reserved for the timestamp)?
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Incorrect. The current version of Google Forms has an independent form responses repository. Sending form responses to Google Sheets is optional.
Form responses could be downloaded as CSV from the Google Forms. Also they could be retrieved by using Google Apps Script.
It's worth to mention that Google hasn't disclosed Google Forms limits but there are reports of forms having a large number of questions (+300) that can't be responded.
The practical limit could be affected the type of questions if the form loads all the questions on a single page or if it uses sections to split questions into several pages.
Correct - Google Forms utilizes Google Spreadsheets to store their data, so you are restricted to the limits imposed on Spreadsheets.
As Jacob pointed out, these limits only apply to old Google Spreadsheets. All limits have been removed in the new version.
All spreadsheet limits mentioned above have been removed in the new version of Google Sheets. The new version of Google Sheets should support 2 million cells of data, though please note that extremely large spreadsheets may have slower performance. Learn more about switching to the new version of Google Sheets.
There is a practical limit to how long a section can be, I use 50 questions max. There is also a maximum runtime for a script and so the total questions you can create using Google Apps Script is less than 500 questions. Beyond that length the form page simply won't respond in time and Google will timeout the request before finishing.
Google may allow you to create any size form, but with Apps Script it will not function beyond a few hundred questions.