I have some text in a Google Document, and I want to have a small table beside this text.
The problem is that the table takes the whole row, so I can't have any text left of the table.
Is it even possible?
This isn't possible, however there is a work around - use a drawing.
Insert -> Drawing
In the drawing, create a text box or shape (if you would like the box to have a background), add the text. To add text to a shape, just double click it.
When you are finished, save and close. Then select the image and select Wrap Text.
The only draw back is that the text box will not be split between two pages if it happens to fall on a page break.
Unfortunately you cannot have text floating around tables in Google docs.
However, you can achieve something similar by using tables within tables:
This will not let text really float around your table (if you delete text above your tables, the free form text won't be absorbed in previous paragraphs), but this will achieve the visual effect you want.
Perhaps a bit more awkward but neater in the sense that the material is dynamic and cooperative.
You can also
After updating the cells in the spreadsheet (if needed) you would need to double click (edit) the drawing and then choose the Update button on the pasted cells/table.
So it's a multi-stage rocket, but not too bad IMO. All tables could be kept in same spreadsheet and also you can quite easily add table caption that floats with the table.
You could just take the table you're using, use the snipping tool, and you should be able to treat it like an image! However you will be unable to alter the text within the table once it has been snipped! try to have the full table before you do so!