Is there any way for multiple users working on a Google Sheets to freeze columns and rows the same way filter view works?
No, that isn't currently possible.
However, if the spreadsheet is used for viewing data (and not entering or modifying) you could make a new spreadsheet for each user, and use
importRange from the "master" spreadsheet in each copy's "A1" cell. Each copy can then freeze/hide/filter as they please and their data will update almost in real-time as the master spreadsheet changes.
One dissadvantage is that you will lose some collaboration because making a cell comment etc will only be in each user's copy, so for adding comments or modifying you need to go to the master.
As a bonus, you can add an extra sheet on each of the copies and put a link to the master spreadsheet there so its easy to go to the master.
importRange : https://support.google.com/docs/answer/3093340?hl=en