I have two columns such as:

a   1 
b   2 

and I need to combine them like:

a   1
a   2
b   1
b   2
c   1
c   2

Is it possible with a formula?

  • Duplicate of this one. – Tom Woodward Nov 15 '15 at 20:41
  • 3
    @TomWoodward No, it's a different one. offa wants a Cartesian product of two sets, not row-by-row concatenation. – user79865 Nov 15 '15 at 20:43

Although this is a special case of In a Google Spreadsheet, show all combinations for a selection of columns I think it's good to have a simpler answer specifically for the case of two columns. The technical term is "Cartesian product of two sets".

I use the same method as Rubén, which requires a character that does not appear in the column entries. Rubén used comma in his example. I prefer something more exotic, e.g. char(9999), which is a pencil: ✏.

Here are the formulas for joining columns A and B in a Cartesian product:

In cell C1:

=transpose(split(join("", arrayformula(rept(filter(A1:A, len(A1:A))&char(9999), counta(B1:B)))), char(9999)))  

In cell D1:

=transpose(split(rept(join(char(9999), filter(B1:B, len(B1:B)))&char(9999), counta(A1:A)), char(9999)))


The formula in C:

  1. takes nonempty entries in A
  2. puts ✏ next to each
  3. repeats each such combo as many times as there are entries in B
  4. joins them into a✏a✏b✏b✏c✏c✏
  5. splits by pencil character into a row a a b b c c
  6. transposes the row so that it becomes a column

The formula in D:

  1. takes nonempty entries in B
  2. joins them, separated by ✏
  3. repeats the entire string as many times as there are entries in A, getting 1✏2✏1✏2✏1✏2✏
  4. splits by pencil character into a row 1 2 1 2 1 2
  5. transposes the row so that it becomes a column
| improve this answer | |
  • thanks for the answer and for the explanations. Works well. – offa Nov 16 '15 at 6:45
  • 1
    It's a good trick but you're likely to run into a cumbersome limitation if you apply it to a large enough data set: the concatenation result cannot exceed 50.000 characters. Faced with the same problem, I ended up creating a custom function to perform a proper SQL JOIN-like operation on two arbitrary ranges/arrays. – ttarchala Aug 18 '17 at 14:26

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