Just as the title says, is it possible to embed a map from Google Maps (i.e. when you click on "share") in a note from Google Keep?
It's not possible to embed a Google Map (or any other type of embeddable content) into Google Keep currently.
The closest one can get today is adding hyperlinks.
Some people have made browser extensions to render Markdown formatting within a Google Keep note, which is not a supported feature. You could implement something similar to load and render a map in a note (on machines with the extension installed at least).