For example, my Facebook post has been linked in a Quora question or a WordPress blog and also visited several times from there. Can I somehow learn about this?
Just go to your page and click on "Insights" then click "Posts" on the left then scroll down to "All Posts Published" and view the Engagement column
If you click the down arrow in the top right corner of the post, one of the options is an embed link. This will give you a URL of the form, https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fuser.name%2Fposts%2F1234567890123. Presumably, anyone linking your post will need to use this link or one very similar. You might try searching Google for this link or even just the post number.