How can I compare the date in a row to a current date, so that if it's greater than today the next steps in my process need to be executed?
Assuming that you want to compare a date in the cell A1 with the current date, use the following formula:
The above will return TRUE if the value of the cell A1 is the greater than the current date.
In Google Sheets the comparison functions and operators could be used with dates if they are properly formatted.
By properly formatted, I mean that spreadsheet engine is able to interpret the cell value as a date. For Google Sheets a date is a serialized number that has assigned a date format. One alternative among others to check if a value is a number is to use ISNUMBER.