Is there a way to refresh specific tabs periodically on the browser and report back any changes with a recipe in IFTTT? How can a specific browser window be targeted when more than one is open?
That's not something IFTTT can do. IFTTT acts as a "bridge" between two different APIs. It also needs to work from the IFTTT servers, and they don't have any access to your local...anything.
You'll need to find a different way to do what you're looking to do.
There are services out there that purport to turn changes to a web page into RSS. You could then use one of them with IFTTT to monitor a page for changes, but it wouldn't be in real-time, and probably won't work for all pages. From what I recall, IFTTT recipes don't run more frequently than every 15 minutes, not to mention whatever frequency is set by the service you're using to convert changes into RSS.