The concept you are describing is known as multiple-level dependent drop-down lists.
Single-level dependent drop-down lists can be implemented with named ranges, but when multiple levels of drop-downs are required, the whole thing is usually simpler to implement with a script.
See the dependentDropDownLists_ script for one example. You can try it out with ...
Absolutely! The terminology used is 'naming' as opposed to 'marking'. Specifically 'naming ranges' or 'named ranges'.
A named range could be a single cell or multiple cells. It is an alternative to using the normal cell references you see in formulas and is very powerful tool.
Here is a Google Support article that may be of assistance:
Name a range of ...
If the figures of interest are in the same column, insert a column next to the numbers and use a tag like freeable cash in that column by the figures of interest. You can then use filter() to pick up the values when necessary.
If the figure cells are not in the same column, you can get a list of their values by using a formula like this:
=flatten(A2, A4, A5, ...
For the range B2:B, use this conditional formatting custom formula rule:
=arrayformula( sum( isblank(C1:Z1) * not(isblank(C2:Z2)) ) )
...or, more concisely:
=sumproduct( isblank(C1:Z1); not(isblank(C2:Z2)) )
These formulas work stand-alone and do not require a helper sheet. See your sample spreadsheet.
Since your post indicates only a single cell that would need such formatting, I'll address it as an accurate representation of your actual need.
Apply a "Custom formula is..." CF rule to G75:
It is possible to apply conditional formatting to a range of cells based on the conditions of one cell using the custom formula option and a logical operator function. Im on mobile so I’m not going to write the code here but I made a duplicate on your example sheet and did the first square. It looks like this:
=AND($B$3=“WHITE”, $C$3=“TRUE”) for cells A1:C3 ...
Yes, this can be done with four custom CF rules, each applied to range A1:X24 (the range of the "chess board":
Rule 1 (white):
Rule 2 (black):
Rule 3 (purple):