Here is the URL pattern:
<width> and <height> seem to have no effect.
Example around the White House:
I think the ones you mention pretty much cover what is available actually - the only other ones are the node, way and relation parameters for overlaying specific OpenStreetMap objects on the map.
I would add though that most of these parameters are considered internal implementation details for use by the OpenStreetMap site itself and you shouldn't really ...
A tile is just on "view" of the underlying open data. It's really just an arbitrary computation based on osm data.
So, even if your "snapshot" of tiles would be only around 10GB or so, these tiles are often not just cached static images but rather have to be (pre)rendered anew, at least every once a time, because the underlying map data is changed. So: it's ...
Here's some info from the first article on using Place Search:
The Google Places API allows you to query for place information on a