This question haunted me as well, and all the available options either didn't work or didn't fit... So I made my own: YouCast
It's free and open sourced.
It works for both channels and playlists.
Supports both audio and video podcasts.
Sorts by popularity.
Both IFTTT and Zapier has integrations to SoundCloud, and can trigger an event when someone you follow uploads a new track.
You can try one of them and combine 2 or more steps to create your rss feed from your updates.
For example, Zapier has an option to create an RSS feed, which might work for you!
You can use a site like SoundCloud Playlist Downloader if you're looking to get all of your podcasts from one playlist downloaded.
As far as an RSS feed in Pocket Casts, it definitely is possible according to this guy's website. It looks like he took an RSS feed URL from his user profile.
I am suprised Podsync has not been mentioned as an answer here! Podsync can turn any Youtube or Vimeo video, Ccannel or playlist in to a subscribable playlist that you can directly sync with your podcast app! I use it and just copy the link to Player FM, which I use on Android. In Player FM the playlists supposedly become public, so beware if making podcasts ...